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Free sample essay on Vietnam war: Humanities 303



assignment Instruction

Originality (no more than 20 – 30% content is cited or quoted), academic tone and proper use of APA for in-text citations and list of references are major aspects of this assignment.


The essay content must be five to seven double-spaced pages in length

(not including the title page or reference pages).


Include list of references identified from Annotated Bibliography Assignments.

Only list the reference in APA format (no annotated commentary)


The margins should be no more than one in. (right and left). The essay should be composed in 12-point Times New Roman or Arial font. All of the sources must be documented and cited using APA format.


Writing for the Humanities:  Composing for the humanities is “technical” in its own way.  Students are to read broadly in philosophy, art, literature, political science, and history and are to show that they can bridge conceptually across humanistic inquiry, innovate meanings that are not apparent at the surface of texts, locate controversies and conflicts that are worthy of researched exploration, and show depth of contemplative thought and character in conducting work of this kind.


Essay Draft Assignment

150 pts




points per category



With Thesis


Page count 5 – 7 pages of content

(not including title page

or list of references page)



Word Choice, Sentence Structure




In-Text Citations


List of References Page

5 different resources listed in APA format identified in Annotated bibliography


(no annotations)



Thesis & Introduction

There is a clear and focused introduction.

The thesis is clear, original, and sophisticated.

The ideas embedded in the thesis are appropriate to the length of the assignment Effort and sensitivity to the study is evident.



Topic Named

5 – 7 pages of content

List of Reference Page


The content provides quality

(not padded, dull writing, repetitive or margin/enlarged




Word Choice & Sentence Structure:

The language is rich, effective, natural, precise, and vivid. Words used to convey images are appropriate to the audience and purpose. Vocabulary is varied, specific, and accurate. It is appropriate for college-level writing.

Sentences add interest and flow to text.

There is strong control over simple and complex sentence structures.


In-text citations

In-text citations are included when material is used

from a source and

references page includes full citations.

Sources do not exceed 30% of the content and are cited correctly (in text and in a full reference page).


List of References Page

There is a minimum of 5 academic sources.

5 different resources listed in APA format identified in

Annotations Assignment (no annotations)








Quotations from Resources




Paragraphs are composed around topics, which naturally and organically emerge from a complex, focused, and sophisticated thesis.


Each paragraph explores one topic and one topic only.

Topics directly relate TO the thesis and are not theses in

and of themselves.


The paragraph completely and fully develops and explains the topic and provides details, examples, illustrations, and quotations from research as well as from the primary texts.


Topics and paragraphs rise above commonplace thinking and summary.


Quoted material is used powerfully to support analytical points (and not as padding).


There is a graceful transition to the next paragraph.  The ideas explored are significant, substantive, and instructive.


Ideas/topics support the overarching thesis so that the paper is a unified whole, and not a concatenation of appended mini-essays.


At least 2 quotes included that were identified in the Annotations Assignments






Writing for the Humanities




Writing for Humanities

Composing for the humanities is “technical” in its own way. Students are to read broadly in philosophy, art, literature, political science, and history; and are to show that they can bridge conceptually across humanistic inquiry, innovate meanings that are not apparent at the surface of texts, locate controversies and conflicts that are worthy of researched exploration, and show depth and focus of contemplative thought and character in conducting work of this kind.


Progress throughout these assignments is also valued













APA Formatting &

page layout




Grammar refers to the correct usage of Standard American English.  Mechanics refers to idiomatic conventions (capitalization of proper nouns, spelling,

and punctuation).

Style refers to persuasiveness, sophistication, wit, and transcendent quality.

Sentences should be varied in length and complexity without loss of clarity or precision of meaning.

Style makes a paper a pleasure to read.



It has a clear introduction, body, and conclusion.

The writing is structured to enhance meaning.

Transitions are used to move from point to point. Transitions provide logical sequence appropriate for the purpose.



Academic tone, and avoidance of slang


APA Formatting:

Margins: no more than 1-inch on all sides

Font:  12-point Times New Roman or Arial

Pagination is in the upper right of the page.


Citations are scrupulously observed

In-text and have a matching full reference on a reference page


Formatted correctly with double spaced in

Time New Roman 12 point font


Both in-text and full references are complete according to the APA style sheet.




Academic Integrity


Originality no more than 30% content is quoted or cited references



Academic Integrity

Original work

Sources do not exceed 30% of the content

and are cited correctly





points earned






The Vietnam War or otherwise known as the second Indochina war occurred between the 1954 and 1975. The war followed the first Indochina war that ended in 1954. In 1940s the Japanese invaded Vietnam. The occupation was only the latest example of the more foreigners’ occupation in the Vietnam. The Chinese empire had the full control of the region in a matter of hundreds of years. At the beginning of the 1800s and the lasting until the end of World War 2, French ruled over Vietnam and the adjacent Laos and Cambodian areas. a region known as collectively the French territory or the French Indochina. Most of the Vietnamese were however against this leadership of the foreigners. Due to this reasons the nationalism developed and became stronger in the region by the end of the 1950s (Herring, 2013). The Vietnamese therefore formed several strong political parties and to push for the independence or for the specific reforms of the French colonial government and specific for the intendance in their country. The then leadership of Ho Chi Minh was advocating for the communism which made him a wanted man by the French leaderships. He organized for the national group in Vietnam which was known as Vietminh. The group consisted of both the communists and the non communist but had a single aim of pushing the Japanese forces out of the country (Kalyvas et al, 2011).

Cause of the war

From the struggle with the Vietminh group the japans were defeated and forced to surrender in 1945 and gave the control of the Indochina to the leadership of the Ho C hi Minh. He quickly form the small victory declared Vietnam an independence country. At the time French had no specific intention of admitting that the country was independent. The French developed the strong strategies to gain back this lost colonial power in the south east region of the country.

The French therefore returned in the country in1946 and stated driving the Vietminh soldiers into hiding in the countryside so as to take over the control of the regions. As a result the Vietminh in return stated fighting back against the French. The Vietminh fought back tactical and started getting domination of the regime that was French dominated. Over some time the Vietminh stared getting control of the large areas of the countryside that were initially occupied by the French. As the fights intensified and the French staring to have the feeling of overwhelmed they started appealing for the intervention of the United States of America (Herring, 2013).

This particular request put the American official in control of the solders in hard position. The United States of America was against colonialism. Initially it had pressured the Dutch to give the empire in Indonesia and later acted in supporting the decision by the British to give independence in India. The case in Vietnam was however an entangled by the communist movement. The American officials did not want the French colonist to take over the Vietnam control as well. At the same time the American officials were so opposed to the fact that the Vietnam was headed towards becoming communists (Kalyvas et al, 2011).

Unites states involvement

Shortly after the gulf of Tonkin resolution passed by the congress, The Vietcong then began the different attacks on the American bases. The American advisers became stationed at the South Vietnam. The attacks began the fall in the 1964 and later had the reasons for the continued case of the escalating situation of the Vietnam War. The attack n the 1965 on the Pleiku which left more than 8 Americans troops dead and over 100 seriously wounded, the then president Johnson thought of it as appoint to responding to the situation. In less than he next half a day the American aircraft bombed the northern side of the Vietnam country.

Soon after the attack, an American poll indicated that president Johnson’s approval of dealing with the Vietnam case shot from 40 to 60 percent. This was later followed by the mentality that more than 80 percent of the total American population agreed that without the American assistance the south east of Asia and Vietnam specifically would have falling to the several groups of the communist who were coming up by then. Therefore the same population agreed that the president of the United States should send more American troops to combat this situation in Vietnam. Following the same president Johnson expanded the American involvement in the counties by stating sustained bombing camping against northern side of Vietnam. The code named the operation rolling thunder. The same northern side of the country, the president of United States ordered the firs combat troops into Vietnam and the soldiers were also to fight alongside the troops from the Vietnam against the Vietcong (Kalyvas et al, 2011).

The war

At the end of the year 1965, more 180,000 Americans combat troop had gotten into the Vietnam and was fighting. This population doubled in 1966. Due to the fact that the American troops were so strong and more organized, they move d into the country with a lot of confidence. The troops according to the opponents were seemed to be very where due to their tactics. Lacking the firepower to counter the American troops, the Vietcong used ambush and booby traps to encounter them. The Vietcong soldiers also acted a frustration to the American troop by blending in with the general population and then quickly vanishing. To counter this vanishing tactics of the Vietcong, American troops went on operation that was aimed at searching and completely destroying the troops hiding placeless. They worked a finding the Vietcong bomb positions and destroying their supply lines and pushing them into more open positions for confrontation (Herring, 2013).

As a means of dodging the strong American troops, the vietecong evaded American forces by hiding out in the thick Vietnam jungles. The Vietcong troops also hid in the underground dug tunnels for escape. The American literally destroyed the landscape to take the Vietcong ability to hide. The American troop’s planed on dropping napalm, jailed form of gasoline that used to expose just on contact with the ground. They also employed the used of agents orange- a chemical which is known for striping leaves  from the thick vegetation and shrubs thereby turning the farmlands into wasteland for easy identification by the troops (Gibbons, 2014).

The United States then acted so primitively underestimating the Vietcong strength. They also in the process misjudged the stamina that the Vietcong enemy group had. The generals in the American troop had a notion that continuous bombing of the hiding –places of the enemy and killing them in substantially large numbers would work to discourage their moral and force them into giving up with their tactics. The Gorririla group however had no specific intention of giving up on the tactics towards the American troops. The Vietcong were willing to give much to achieve their motives.

Soviet Union and Chinas involvement

The North Vietnams started getting military weapons and other specific support from the soviet and china to counter the American troops. The main reason he American president Johnson refused to order a complete or full- invasion on the region. He had the fear that such attacks would bring the china into the specific war as it had happened in the Korean case. As a means of taking limits to this war, President Johnson completed and made it hard for them to win. Instead of fighting and conquering the enemy territory they were forced to fight attrition. His strategy was aimed at fighting and defeating enemy forced by wearing them done and making them weaker. The American troops through this strategy conducted a body count on the enemy after the wars to ascertain the how many of the enemy population they had killed in each specific attack situation (Kalyvas et al, 2011).

They then used the number of the dead soldiers to determine and measure their success in the war. However they just used speculation of how the remaining enemy troop was weak since they did not know the number left after an attack. The continued bombing by the American soldiers between the years1965 to 19767 killed over 220000 Vietnamese. At the end of the 1966 a population of the6700 American troops died from this war (Gibbons, 2014)..

End of the war

The end of the war was contributed by several factors. The election of President Nixon saw him fulfill the campaign promise to the people of the America of ending the war in Vietnam by withdrawing the soldiers and no sending of more troops to the area. Later the United States agreed to promise championed for the withdrawal of the troops from Vietnam. In addition to this both sides of the two troops involved agreed to exchange the war prisoners. Americans equally took to streets protesting for the end of this war sitting the number of the civilians killed in the war. Both President Nixon and Vietnam president Thieu agreed to end the eight year long war.


There were left marks on the two nations as whole. Later on in 1973 the congress passed a war act as a war of reestablishing the American limited of power execution. The act was also supposed to bring healing among between the two regions and seal deals of no more war n this region. The congress then authorized the use of military force in a situation before committing the ground troops to reduce instance of war fueling



Herring, G. (2013). America’s longest war: the United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Gibbons, W. C. (2014). The US Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships, Part IV: July 1965-January 1968 (Vol. 4). Princeton University Press.

Anderson, D. L. (Ed.). (2010). The Columbia History of the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press

Kocher, M. A., Pepinsky, T. B., & Kalyvas, S. N. (2011). Aerial bombing and counterinsurgency in the Vietnam War. American Journal of Political Science55(2), 201-218.

Prados, J. (2009). Vietnam: The history of an unwinnable war, 1945-1975. University Press of Kansas.

Kolko, G. (1985). Anatomy of a war: Vietnam, the United States, and the modern historical experience. Pantheon

Jeffords, S. (1989). The remasculinization of America: Gender and the Vietnam war (Vol. 10). Indiana University Press.

Kulka, R. A., Schlenger, W. E., Fairbank, J. A., Hough, R. L., Jordan, B. K., Marmar, C. R., & Weiss, D. S. (1990). Trauma and the Vietnam war generation: Report of findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. Brunner/Mazel.

Young, M. (1991). Vietnam Wars 1945-19. Harper Collins.

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